Recent updates on effectiveness of COVID-19 vaccines

Document Type : Review Article

Authors

1 Department of Horticulture, The University of Agriculture, Peshawar Pakistan

2 School of Biotechnology, Jiangnan University, China

3 Institute of Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering, The University of Agriculture Peshawar, Pakistan

4 Department of Human Development studies, College of Home Economics, University of Peshawar, Pakistan

5 Department of Biotechnology, Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad, Pakistan

6 Department of Bioinformatics and Biotechnology, Faculty of Life Science, Government College University Faisalabad, Pakistan

7 Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Life Science and Informatics, Balochistan University of Information Technology Engineering and Management Sciences, Quetta, Pakistan

8 Department of Biotechnology, Faculty of Life Sciences and Informatics, Balochistan University of Information Technology Engineering and Management Sciences, Quetta, Pakistan

Abstract

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has infected millions of people worldwide. Vaccines are urgently needed to mitigate COVID-19 pandemic and return to the pre-pandemic era. The aims of the current literature review were to discuss the administered vaccines and\or those under trials, and to summarize the effectiveness of the available COVID-19 vaccines. Scientists worldwide have made extensive efforts for vaccine development in record time. Several vaccine candidates have been developed; where many of them have passed stage III clinical trials and have recorded positive results. About 18 vaccines candidates are currently in phase III clinical trial.  Almost all the developing vaccine candidates have T cell response and detectable numbers of neutralizing antibodies. The most common vaccine side effects include; fever, chills, fatigue, headache, muscle and joint pains. The post stage III successful vaccines have been administered to individuals worldwide.

Keywords


Volume 5, Issue 4
July and August 2021
Pages 1301-1312
  • Receive Date: 18 July 2021
  • Revise Date: 08 August 2021
  • Accept Date: 15 August 2021
  • First Publish Date: 15 August 2021