Potentials of the marine microbial enzymes in therapeutics

Document Type : Review Article


Department of Biotechnology, University of Karachi, 75270-Karachi, Pakistan


About 70 % of the surface of Earth is covered with oceans and hosts an enormous variety of environmental, biological, and chemical standings. The marine environment consists of a comprehensive range of animals, plants, and microorganisms, which have several benefits in the biotechnological developments. This review aimed to investigate the potentials of using the marine microbial enzymes in therapeutics. The marine microbial species were uncultivable but recently, scientists cultivated certain seawater microbes effectively by a metagenomic technique. Several studies on the marine microbiome are undergoing and it can be assumed that approximately 91 % of the microbial species in the oceans are unidentified. The marine surroundings possess an exclusive environment with inimitable features and become a source of microbes fabricating many biocatalysts with no earthbound analog. The oceanic microbial enzymes have recently been found to be eco-friendly, rapid, inexpensive for construction, and can be used in several industries, including food, fabric, cleansers, medications, chemicals, dairy, biodiesel, and cosmetics. Compared with the mesophilic enzymes, the extremozymes execute a wider range of reactions and can act as natural substitutes for the mesophilic enzymes. The most relevant part of the worldwide economy is the therapeutic industry, whose market value is around 1.1 trillion US $. The enzyme biocatalysis is a prevailing approach that can be implemented in an assortment of industries, and is a more discriminative tool, sustainable, and eco-friendly as compared with the chemical catalysis.