A review on drug resistance patho-mechanisms in ESKAPE bacterial pathogens

Document Type : Review Article


1 SDM Research Institute for Biomedical Sciences, Shri Dharmasthala Manjunatheshwara University, 5th Floor, Specialty Block, Manjushree Building, Manjushree Nagar, Sattur- Dharwad-580009, Karnataka, India

2 Department of Microbiology, SDM College of Medical Sciences and Hospital, Shri Dharmasthala Manjunatheshwara University, SDMCMSH Campus, Manjushree Nagar, Sattur-Dharwad-580009, Karnataka, India

3 Department of Biotechnology, Jnana Ganga Campus, Gulbarga University, Kalaburagi-585106, Karnataka, India


The escalating incidence of nosocomial infections stemming from ESKAPE (Enterococcus faecium, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Acinetobacter baumannii, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Enterobacter spp.) bacterial pathogens presents a formidable clinical challenge globally, affecting both the developed and developing nations. These pathogens, which are distinguished by their robust antibiotic resistance mechanisms, pose a significant threat to the public health. Their ability to evade traditional antimicrobial treatments underscores the urgent need for novel therapeutic stratifies or alternative approaches to mitigate their negative impact. Understanding the intricate mechanisms underpinning antibacterial resistance in ESKAPE bacteria is paramount for developing effective interventions. Enhanced insights into these mechanisms will facilitate the prediction of resistance patterns among the multidrug-resistant pathogens, thereby guiding the development of targeted therapies and preventive measures. Consequently, comprehensive efforts are needed aiming at unraveling the intricacies of antibacterial resistance in ESKAPE pathogens that are imperative to safeguarding the public health. The aim of the present review was to highlight the patho-mechanisms of ESKAPE bacteria towards the different antibiotics and genes involved in multi-drug resistance.